Broken Dog Teeth from Antlers and Raw Bones
We all know that dogs love and crave bones, so it only seems sensible to provide them with this common treat—that of which we associate as an iconic symbol of dogdom.
Numerous bones and bone-shaped products have infiltrated the market of pet care; some claiming to perform teeth cleaning services, while others are promoted as enriching toys that eliminate boredom for your pet. They come in different flavors, contain different animal and vegetable foods, and have various levels of hardness. What products promote the optimal welfare and physical health of our cherished companions? Are raw bones the answer?
Too long didn’t read summary: Some raw bones are beneficial but they also host more risks than other dog chews. Antlers, horns and hooves are popular dog chews that no one should give to their dogs.
The hype about raw bones
I used to think the answer to the dental disease problem was raw and meaty bones. Before discovering this seemingly common sense option, I tried and was not impressed with the visible results of several commercial products such as Dentastix, Greenies, and edible Nylabone products.
My dog, aged approximately 13.5 at the time of this writing, quickly devoured them but there wasn't a noticeable effect on her dentition. In addition, they all contained ingredients such as corn, wheat, potatoes, and soy which I blamed for weight gain in dogs (and humans).
Then, after abiding by the claims of the raw food movement, I gave her a raw sheep marrow bone purchased from Wellness Meats, a company that sells free range animal products for human consumption but also has a few options for pets.
I was amazed with the results; the chewing portions of my dog’s teeth—normally clad in a yellow tinge with upper portions of unsightly tarter at the tip of the gum line—were gleaming white for the first time!
The gums were bleeding slightly, indicating that they were in the beginnings of gingivitis but had been given a decent work out by the lengthy muscle tearing process my dog had vigorously undergone. So I’ve always urged people to ignore conventional veterinary advice and definitely try to feed a raw diet, bones included, as an optimally nutritive and teeth cleaning regimen.
Then my dog, who’d never had a professional teeth cleaning before, broke a premolar on a particularly hard pork bone. Breaking teeth is a common criticism of bone chewing by vets, yet I figured my dog was just in the unlucky minority to experience this, and that the visible benefits of raw bone chewing exceeded the low risk of tooth breaking.
How to care for your pet’s teeth
My best advice is to listen to the expert’s advice:
- Brush your pet’s teeth with dog-specific toothpaste at least 4x a week, ideally everyday (mandatory)
- Give them a chew bone or product of the proper hardness at least 2x a week
- Use a Chlorhexidine dental wash (optional)
- Supplement with 1-TDC Dual Action (Joint & Periodontal) (optional, my dental specialist recommended it but the evidence is sparse right now)
- Have your pet’s teeth cleaned professionally, ideally annually, and at minimum once they become middle aged
My dog’s broken tooth was largely ignored for months. My vet (who practiced 'holistic' methods of which I was not aware of) provided some pain meds and told us to tell him if my dog exhibited any discomfort. We didn’t want my dog to undergo a risky, expensive, extraction surgery, so under the notion that a broken tooth isn’t very harmful, it remained in her mouth for over a year.
Meanwhile, while doing research about SeaWorld’s killer whales and hypothesizing that their lower longevity rates in captivity are probably due in part to poor dental health, I became more concerned with my dog’s predicament. The tooth had since died and was discolored, and the broken ‘flap’ that hung over the cracked molar never fell off, even though my vet strangely assured me it did (check the pictures, does it look like it's still there?).
I decided to have my dog go to a dental specialist and have the surgery right away, despite much resistance from everyone else in my family due to fears about anesthesia. I decided it was against my code of pet keeping ethics to leave her tooth in that condition and have her deal with any associated pain that she couldn’t easily express.
Part of my dog's dental report
Surprisingly, not only did my dog need her dead tooth removed, but the vet also removed 5 other teeth that were abscessed, loose, absorptive, or weakened in some other way (my dog had a highly unusual wisdom tooth that was also causing issues). I was immensely satisfied in my decision, despite it costing upwards $1800.
Do raw bones clean teeth?
One of the interesting things about my dog’s removed teeth is that aside from her cracked tooth, none of them were ‘chewing teeth’, or molars and premolars that are used to gnaw muscle tissue or bones right before swallowing.
She did have two incisor teeth pulled that were loose, which are used to tear the meat off the bone before the processing done by the molars. I think this might show that the amount of chewing my dog did had a protective effect on the teeth that did the most work, and this also shows that it is imperative to brush your dog’s teeth routinely and get professional cleanings as well, because despite the bone consumption, my dog had several health problems including gingivitis (curable) and periodontal disease (incurable). This is the recommendation from experienced health professionals.
- Raw Bones; What You Need To Know | IVC Journal
Not good on many levels
Not all raw bones are great for teeth cleaning. Chicken wings are rapidly consumed before long-term chewing (except for smaller dogs) and bones without muscle tissues invite no tearing from the incisors or ‘sponging’ up against the tips of the gums from which the molars emerge.
People who must use bones should opt for bones that are also meaty, and they should not be overly hard. This includes options such as various sheep, deer, and goat bones for average-sized dogs, while large beef, pork, and bison bones should be avoided. However, I’ve stopped using raw bones, and foods completely, and here’s why.
Why I don’t use raw bones anymore
Naturalistic Fallacy or Appeal to Nature
I used to feed my pets a raw diet on the logic that dogs are not much different from wolves, and wolves naturally eat raw meat, therefore my dog should too—that is until I realized this is the bad logic of my mortal enemies.
On my blog, I advocate the ownership of non-domesticated animals, and I frequently argue that just because an animal gets something in the wild doesn’t mean it needs it in captivity.
Wolves do not need the same range they get in the wild in zoos, tigers do not need to hunt and eat live cows which is also terribly cruel, and housecats do not need to free roam to be happy and healthy.
In addition, there are many elements about wild living that are completely undesirable. While some animals like killer whales and elephants (mostly females) might enjoy longer life spans, most wild animals, including wolves, die prematurely from many factors, that of which we do not seek to replicate. Broken teeth are one of those factors.
There is sparse or no evidence available that supports the idea that raw feeding (which includes bones) is nutritionally beneficial over cooked and balanced commercial diets.
There is actually more evidence that homemade diets (raw or cooked), as it tends to be fed without assistance from nutritionists, has caused more health problems in cats and dogs because they tend to be nutritionally inadequate.
Given this issue, it would be irrational to recommend raw feeding to the general public, and it is difficult for even committed owners to insure their pets are getting a balanced diet with homemade meals.
- FDA Study Shows Raw Pet Diets Contaminated with Potentially Deadly Bacteria Much More Frequently...
- Homemade Diet Recipes for Your Pet are Unreliable | The SkeptVet
- Evidence Update-Review of Risks and Benefits of Raw Meat Diets for Dogs and Cats | The SkeptVet
*Crack*! Don't let this happen to you
It is perfectly possible to have your dog avoid breaking teeth. As explained earlier, not every obtainable raw bone is equal—some are easy for dogs to chew and eat, but this likely also decreases benefit. The denser bones last longer but have very little nutritional value.
Bones like meaty sheep marrow bones such as these probably provide the most benefit for dogs cleaning-wise and presumably my dog has not received any fractures from them, but this does not mean there is no risk.
Lack of my dog not fracturing teeth from certain bones is not an argument against the unnecessary risk that raw bones present, just like the lack of a non-seat belt wearer dying in a car crash is not an argument against the common sense of wearing seat belts.
These sounds make me cringe!
The same arguments go for bacterial infection. My dog presumably never had this problem with the bacteria from raw food, but the risk is there and it is unnecessary. Just as raw food advocates say, dogs can probably tolerate raw foods quite well.
Going back to the naturalistic fallacy, nature, or better yet, natural selection, is the process of the ‘fittest’ (individuals that produce the most viable offspring) surviving. That doesn’t mean animals don’t die, it’s the opposite. Many animals will die and fail to spread their genes, which is exactly how natural selection functions. Do we want to place our pets in this system and watch the ‘less fit’ individuals be the unlucky recipients of a bacterial disease?
Or should we ignore nature and choose the safest option? Furthermore, the disease risk is also present for the human owners. It is difficult, at least for me, to keep the area sanitary when feeding bones.
That alone is enough for the costs or raw feeding to supersede benefit, particularly if you have children or live with immune system-compromised or elderly people.
In addition to safety, I am actually thrilled to have quit raw bones and meat for my dog because of all the pathogenic grime produced by the process not ending up on the rug or my face. Even those who claim that dogs have a robust immune system and can digest raw meat well cannot deny that you cannot sterilize your dogs paws and fur, which is filled with the remnants of your dogs last meal. My dog often holds down bones when she chews, so feeding outside, which is also not feasible year round in a cold climate, doesn't help the problem.
Senior dogs are at the highest risk
Speaking of the elderly, if your dog is a senior or geriatric I strongly advise removing all raw products. If we want to use nature as our guide, we should understand that wild wolves are not expected to exceed 13 years of age in the wild and many die younger.
What would we know about the optimal diet for a wild, senior wolf when many of them perish before reaching the ages that our companion animals regularly do, depending on their size?
Because aging is deteriorative, your older dog’s potentially compromised immune system does not need the added task of dealing with the unnecessary level of bacteria in raw foods when there is little or no benefit of doing so. Wild wolves also break and wear their teeth; the older they become, the higher the risk. As was my experience, being put in the position of requiring expensive surgery for a senior dog of which anesthesia is riskier can be very nerve-racking.
Antlers and hooves are terrible
Use These Guidelines
- Kneecap Rule: If you hit your knee cap with a dog chew and it hurts, it's probably too hard.
- It is preferable for the chew to be able to be indented with a fingernail.
- If the chew cannot be flexed, it's likely it is too hard.
- If you can drive a nail with it, it's too hard.
- Review of 12 Top Selling Dog Dental Chews | My Favorites for Teeth Cleaning and Safety
Do dental chews for dogs really clean their teeth? My experiment to find the best commercial dental bone. Raw bones are also tested.
Alternatives to raw bones
There are numerous dog chew products on the market and I’ve reviewed some of them here.
Many people opt to use raw bones because they don’t contain additives and ‘chemicals they can’t pronounce’. The large majority of these concerns are unsubstantiated because many foods we consider healthy contain ‘chemical’ compounds that sound ‘unnatural’ but are very much the opposite.
However, for those who are determined to give dogs ‘simple’ chews, beef hide based dental chews such asCET Oral Hygiene Chews are clinically proven to be effective and safe. Look for the VOHC Seal of Acceptance on products.
Here is a list of the current recipients. Remember, just because something isn’t on this list doesn’t mean it’s not effective but that it just hasn’t been tested. Feed your dog accordingly, making sure to take into account the extra calories of the chew you are using. Pick the proper size and know your dog’s chewing habits to insure safe use of the product.
All dog chews, raw or commercial, require supervision during use.